Jupiter – greatest of the gods

Jupiter, also known as Iuppiter or Jove, was one of the most significant and powerful gods in the Roman pantheon. He was considered the king of the gods, the ruler of the heavens, and the protector of the Roman state. Jupiter was associated with various aspects, including sky, thunder, justice, and leadership.

In Scotland one beautiful statue to Jupiter was found in Peebles and is now on display in Peebles Museum

Jupiter in Peebles Museum

Jupiter was believed to be the son of Saturn (Cronus) and Ops (Rhea). Jupiter, Juno and Minerva were worshipped together called the Capitoline Triad. Jupiter’s consort was Juno, the queen of the gods, with whom he had many divine offspring, including Mars, Vulcan, and Minerva. He was often depicted as a mature and majestic figure, usually shown with a beard, holding a thunderbolt in his hand, and seated on a throne.

Juno, Jupiter and Minerva, known as the Capitoline Triad. Naples National Museum

As the god of the sky and thunder, Jupiter was associated with the forces of nature. He was believed to control the weather, with his thunderbolts symbolizing his power and authority. It was believed that the sound of thunder was the result of Jupiter hurling his thunderbolts into the sky.

Jupiter was revered as the protector of the Roman state and its people. His role as the guardian of justice and order made him an important deity in Roman society. He was considered the ultimate arbiter and the enforcer of laws, ensuring that justice prevailed. As a result, oaths and treaties were often sworn in his name, emphasizing his role as a guarantor of honesty and integrity.

In addition to his cosmic and judicial roles, Jupiter was also associated with fertility and abundance. He was believed to govern agriculture and the growth of crops, bestowing blessings upon farmers and ensuring a bountiful harvest.

Jupiter was worshipped throughout the Roman Empire, and his temples, such as the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, were grand and imposing structures. Festivals and ceremonies, such as the Roman Games (Ludi Romani), were held in his honour, showcasing the importance of his cult in Roman religious practices.


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