Roman Gods in Scotland

The Romans had many, many gods and assimilated local gods wherever they conquered.


Their original pantheon of 12 gods which included Jupiter, Mercury, Mars and others were copies of Greek gods – Zeus, Hermes and Ares in these 3 cases.

Many other religions and figures were introduced according to local tradition. The Cult of Mithras gained importance as a semi-secret religion practised by the army elite and notable citizens. It was an Eastern religion from what is now Iran.

In Scotland, we have altars dedicated to

  • Apollo
  • Brigantia, a local god – 9 altars in Britain and one in Scotland. See Roman Inscription Brigantia.
  • Diana, the goddess of hunting
  • Epona is a Celtic goddess associated with horses, fertility, and protection. She was widely worshipped by Celtic tribes across Europe. Altars dedicated to Epona were common in Gaul and Britain. Epona is typically depicted seated on a horse, emphasizing her role as a guardian and patroness of horses. – one altra in Scotland dedicated to Epona
  • Fortuna
  • Hercules
  • Hercules Magusanus – a lower Rhine god with one altar at Mumrills
  • Jupiter, father of the gods
  • Mercury
  • Minerva
  • Mithras
  • Neptune – 11 altars in Britain and 2 in Scotland – RIB Netptune
  • Priapus, a fertility god famously depicted in Pompeii. One dedication to Priapus in Scotland only.
  • Ricagambeda, a Rhineland god. There is only one altar in Britain at Birrens in Scotland.
  • Silvanus, a spirit of the woods – 33 altars, 4 in Scotland
  • Sol, the sun god
  • Venus and Cupid
  • Victory – 66 altars in Britain

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